Australia's Energy Future; where from here?

At the time of writing (2018) South Australia had gone from near zero renewable electricity to more than half in fifteen years – and in the same period SA's power prices rose less than those in the other states. This is only a taste of what is possible, and renewable energy is getting cheaper all the time.

Not just South Australia, but the whole of Australia has huge renewable energy resources; huge potential to lower not just Australian emissions, but global emissions, huge potential in the development of new industries and increased employment, huge potential for export income. They are all going largely untapped because our federal government can't see beyond fossil fuels.

Unprecedented heatwaves, fires, storms, floods and droughts are just the obvious face of the climate change that scientists have been warning us about for decades. It is plain that renewable energy is the future, coal, oil and gas should be left in the past.

In what follows I point out that we could be developing far more onshore wind power and while we have no offshore wind power at present we could develop a lot of that too. A simple calculation shows that more solar power could be generated in just a small area of northern SA than is consumed in the whole of Australia.

Calculations like these have been done before; they are not new. What is new is that now these things are economically viable. The one thing missing for the full and early development of these assets is vision in those who are running the country (whoever they are).

The opportunities are enormous and many. Apart from more of the same, more wind and solar PV power, we have: turning excess renewable energy into hydrogen to replace natural gas for domestic consumption and export, electric vehicles, hydrogen powered vehicles, producing and exporting hydrogen products, exporting electricity and solar thermal power with incorporated energy storage. There are a number of viable forms of energy storage to go with the renewable energy developments: pumped hydro, batteries, compressed air, heat. And there are more developments all the time, based on clean, renewably generated energy.

This page was written 2018/08/20, last edited 2023/07/01
Contact: David K. Clarke – ©

A prediction

Predictions are always very risky, but I'll make this one. In March 2021 it was announced that the big Yallourn coal-fired power station is to close four years early.

My prediction is that many or most of Australia's coal-fired power stations will be shut down much earlier than previously intended. Renewable energy has forced down the wholesale price of energy to the point that coal generation is uneconomical.

This page uses a number of different energy units. See another page on this site for an explanation.

A part of one of Australia's wind farms
Wind farm
Wattle Point Wind Farm, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

Edited 2021/01/02

Great opportunities for integrating renewables with other things

I've discussed elsewhere what I see as game changes and the potential of hydrogen and e-methanol as carriers of clean energy and industries with great potential futures in Australia.

Integration of home solar power, electric vehicles and the power grid


Integration of PV into roofing

At some point solar photovoltaic panels will be integrated with roofing. For years the combination of roofing materials with PV generation has been an obvious way to go, but for some reason it hasn't yet become commonplace.

As has been calculated elsewhere on this page, if all Australian roofs were used for generating power the amount generated would be close to total power demand.

The battery of an EV could serve as a home energy storage and could also trade power with the grid to the advantage of both the owner and the power grid. Fossil fuels and the internal combustion engine are on the way out; they must be if the planet is to have a future not greatly inferior to its past. Anyone who doubts this is living in a dream; anyone in a position of power who resists this is a criminal committing a crime against humanity.

For many years now we've been seeing solar panels going onto more and more Australian roofs. More recently we've been seeing nations with progressive governments adopting more and more electric vehicles (EVs; not so much in Australia with its fossil fuel obsessed federal government). And in recent years, in Australia especially, we've been seeing more and more home batteries being installed, some of these being integrated into virtual power grid backup batteries.

The great opportunity that we are just starting to hear about is the integration of all this.

The source of the home-generated power will be solar photovoltaic (PV) generators built into the house (rather than added on as an afterthought as is usual at present).

  • The home solar system will include:
    • Home solar systems that will have the solar panels integrated into the roofing;
    • Windows that will be able to generate electricity at that same time as controlling the amount of light (and heat) entering the house;
    • Possibly wall cladding that will also generate electricity.

    Battery size

    At the time of writing (2018) car battery capacities typically varied from 16-60kWh while home battery capacities were around 2-10kWh. If you have a big battery sitting in your carport most of the time why have a smaller battery in the house. If you wanted you could have a small battery in you home, for when the car is out, or you could simply rely on power from the grid when needed. You, of course, would have control over where the power goes at any time you choose.

    Intelligent overall control is needed

    In 2020 there is little, if any, user control over when a home battery charges. In some cases energy is wasted because a home battery charges first thing in the morning (when grid voltage is moderate) and by the time the battery is charged and solar power could be exported into the grid, the grid voltage is too high and exporting is blocked.

    For an efficient integrated system either more human control should be allowed, or automatic intelligent control should be built in.


    Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs)

    There is no reason that FCEVs cannot be integrated into this system as well.

    News November 2020

    Energy Magazine ran a story 2020/11/19 about AGL running a $8.25 million trial involving 300 private EV owners. The trial will look into various ways of integrating the EV batteries into the power grid.
  • The home solar systems will be able to feed into:
    • The home;
    • A large capacity, high temperature storage water heater;
    • A small home battery (it's questionable whether a home battery would be justified if the EV battery is integrated into the home);
    • A battery in an electric vehicle;
    • The power grid.
  • The electric vehicle:
    • The EV battery will power the EV itself;
    • The EV battery will be able to power the house (when required);
    • When the EV is not at home the home will be powered, by the solar PV system, the small home battery or from the power grid.
  • The hot water store will be used as a storage of energy in the form of heat:
    • The hot water storage could be used to supplement home heating
    • and to provide hot water for the kitchen and bathroom.
  • The grid will be used for powering household requirements, recharging the home battery, recharging the EV battery, heating water; all as required and all depending on the price and availability of power on the grid.
The individual units are mostly in place, but putting them all together into a cooperating system will save money for the home-owner/EV-owner and help to stabilise the entire power grid. An essential part that is not at present in place is the passing on of the highly variable wholesale electricity prices to home owners so that they can buy power when it is cheap and sell it when the price is high (to the advantage of the home owner and the grid). The integration could not only save money for home owners but it could be a big money earner.

The control of where power goes and when it goes will, of course, have to be controlled by a computer based on priorities set by the home owner.

Integration such as is being discussed but it seems that there is quite a way to go before it becomes an economic practicality and a common reality.

This section added

Another opportunity, combining solar power with farming

Solar panels could increase agricultural productivity if used well especially in regions that tend to be hot and dry - such as much of Australia. Solar panels will reduce soil temperatures beneath the panels during the summer and therefore will increase the effectiveness of any rainfall.

The Clean Energy Council published a 48 page guide to "agrisolar for large-scale solar" in March 2021. Combining solar with grazing, aquaculture, horticulture, viticulture and apiary are discussed.
Sheep grazing can easily be combined with a solar farm, to the advantage of both; the sheep control the vegetation, the panels help keep the feed green for the sheep.

My wife and I used to have a small wine-grape vineyard in the Clare Valley of South Australia. We still own some land there. Climate change seems to be causing reduced rainfall; it is certainly causing higher average temperatures. Many of the wine-grapes in the Clare Valley used to be dry-grown - that is, not irrigated. Supplementary water is becoming increasingly needed.

Grapes are grown in rows. Solar farms have their panels in rows. Alternating a row of solar panels with a row of vines would make the natural rainfall more effective for the vines. Consideration would have to be given to avoiding the shading of the panels by the vines and to accessing the vines for pest control and harvesting.

This section added

Solar panels to provide shade

Solar shaded car park at Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia
Flinders University installed a large solar PV car park shade in the second half of 2018 at one of its campuses. Almost 6000 panels were installed with a capacity of 1.8 MW; it has been estimated that they will generate 2,700 MWh per year.
I have written another page on this site about using solar panels to provide shade for car parking. As of the time of writing this has been used in some places but there are enormous opportunities for combining solar power production with valuable shade that are going to waste.

Australia is the perfect place for combining solar power generation with shade. The sunny climate is ideal for solar power generation and the hot climate makes shade desirable. And shade could be very useful in many other places than car parks.

Shade is only going to become more and more valuable as the climate warms.

The situation at the time of writing; Mid 2018

Clare polling booth, Australian federal election, 2019/05/18
Our future
School kids Niamh and Emma asking for the world that they will inherit to be protected.
They and many others were disappointed, the corrupt and coal-loving Liberal/National coalition was re-elected.
  • Greenhouse/climate change, ocean acidification and sea level rise are looming disasters whose massive proportions most people don't seem to grasp. All are largely caused by the burning of fossil fuels.
  • Air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal, is killing millions of people each year.
  • Australia has a limited amount of installed wind power (5% of generation in 2016 – Australian Energy Update, 2017, Department of Environment and Energy);
  • More wind power is being developed, and far more has been proposed;
  • About a quarter of Australian houses had roof-top solar power in 2017, the proportion of commercial premises with solar is probably similar (solar accounted for 3% of total generation in 2016, almost all of this being small-scale: Australian Energy Update, 2017, Department of Environment and Energy);
  • Utility scale solar power at the present is small, but is about to become a major factor in the generation/consumption equation; in a decade or so it could become as large as present wind power generation;
  • There is little energy storage in the nation and the amount proposed to be built in the near future is not sufficient to cover foreseeable needs;
  • There is a very large amount of ageing coal-fired generation in NSW, Queensland, Victoria and WA;
  • There is absolutely no need for additional coal-fired (or other, eg. Nuclear) base-load generation capacity;
  • There is sufficient gas generation to fill demand when the wind isn't blowing and the sun isn't shining.

Geothermal energy

Determined attempts have been made to develop hot rock geothermal energy in SA. They have thus far failed to prove economically viable.

Air pollution is the world's single biggest environmental health risk

A 2012 World Health Organisation (WHO) report, summarised in The Guardian, states that air pollution is the world's single biggest environmental health risk.

The main sources of ambient air pollution are motor vehicles and coal burning. The main sources of air pollution in homes are coal smoke and wood smoke.

Coal (and gas) burning for power generation can be replaced with renewable energy. Motor vehicles can be electrified or powered by non-polluting hydrogen, coal and wood burning in homes can be replaced with electricity, and the electricity for it all can be generated using renewables. Even coke (made from coal) for smelting and refining metals can be replaced by hydrogen extracted from water using renewable energy.

A decade of transition in the Australian electricity sector.
Change in terawatt-hours generated in the National Electricity Market between 2008 and 2018.
Image credit: Simon Holmes à Court, The Guardian
The graph on the right records the change in Australia's energy mix in the decade from 2008 to 2018.

In spite of both Labor and Liberal-National coalition governments (particularly the latter, from the Abbott Government starting in September 2013 to the Morrison Government, still in place at the time of writing, January 2019) supporting the coal industry, renewable energy has made great inroads into power generation in Australia.

Quoting Simon Holmes à Court in the Guardian article that published the graph:

"Highly polluting brown coal use is down 36.6% and black coal (still dirty!) has fallen 9.4%, mostly replaced by wind and solar."
At the time of writing (2018) it was looking like the rate of renewable energy installation and coal power station retirement was only going to increase.

While these coalition governments have been nothing short of criminal in their opposition to action on climate change, fortunately they have been notably ineffectual in their efforts to stop the transition to renewable energy.

South Australia shows what is possible

The graph below shows a record of South Australia's huge success in:
  1. Going from near zero renewable energy to about 50% in just 15 years;
  2. Adopting wind power (shown green on the graph);
  3. Adopting solar power (shown yellow on the graph);
  4. Finishing with coal power (shown brown on the graph);
  5. and from 2017, increasingly exporting power to the eastern states.
The remainder of Australia has achieved far less. For more information on South Australia's great achievement see SA Success, elsewhere on this site.

South Australia's generation record (added to this page 2019/01/17)
SA generation record
Image credit: Open Nem

Where next?

Peterborough, South Australia, 4.9 MW Solar Farm
Peterborough Solar Farm
Photo taken using my drone, 2018/05/12.
Peterborough township in the background. The solar farm had not long been completed.
Solar farms less than 5 MW require less ancillary services to be provided by the owner than those over that capacity.
In this section I have outlined the changes that are in the process of happening or seem very close to happening. Also see what will happen a little further into the future below and I've listed the more speculative and exciting developments in the game-changer and technical challenges sections below.

More solar PV

There are a great many rooftop solar PV installations in Australia, typically no bigger than 5 kW and rarely bigger than 100 kW; there is scope for far more. Recently utility scale solar PV farms of multi-MW capacity have become commonplace; a number of these have been in the 100 MW+ range.

At the time of writing (2018) many solar PV farms were either under construction or proposed in Australia. Wikipedia stated that:

"As of March 2018, Australia had over 7,803 MW of installed photovoltaic (PV) solar power, of which 1,651 MW were installed in the preceding 12 months."

Of particular interest was the recent tendency to co-locate solar farms with wind farms; for example there was a 50 MW solar farm proposed for the Snowtown Wind Farm (it was expected that the generation from the solar farm during daylight would smooth the total generation because the wind farm tended to generate most power at night). It seems likely that new wind farms being built in Australia will include a significant solar PV component and possibly some form of energy storage, most likely battery.

In August 2018 Victorian Energy Minister Lily D'Ambrosio had proposed an initiative to install 2,600 MW of solar PV on 360,000 homes; whether it happens will depend on the outcome of an upcoming election among other things.

Solar thermal power with storage

A solar thermal power station in the USA
Solar thermal power station
There was nothing on this scale in Australia at the time this photo was taken, 2023/06/29, nor was there any likelihood of any being built in the foreseeable future.
(There is a solar PV power station in the distance on the right.)

Sundrop Farms – the solar power installation
Sundrop Farms solar
A small part of the greenhouse is just visible on the lower right.
Heat is stored in molten salt in the large tank on the right behind the tower.
Photo taken with my drone
At the time of writing (2018) Sundrop Farms, near Port Augusta in South Australia (photo on the right) was the only significant development of solar thermal power with energy storage in the country. It is not used to generate grid electricity, it powers a huge greenhouse including desalination of the very salty water supply.

There is huge scope for further similar developments around Australia.

In 2020 it seemed that solar thermal methods of generating electricity had lost the battle against solar photovoltaic, due to the economies of scale of the latter.

More wind farms

At the time of writing (2018) 21 wind farms were under construction around Australia, totalling 989 MW; many others had been proposed.

More interconnection

In February 2019 transmission network companies ElectraNet and Transgrid delivered their final report into their proposal to build a $1.5 billion link between Robertstown in South Australia and Wagga Wagga in NSW. They have dubbed the project “EnergyConnect”. For more information on the proposal see Renew Economy.

My impression is that this will be a boost for the renewable energy industry in both states, but particularly for SA, and help to reduce Australia's greenhouse gas emissions.

It is proposed that the new interconnector will have a capacity of 800 MW, which is about a half of the typical electricity generation in South Australia.

At the time of writing (2018) there was increasingly often more renewable energy generation in SA than could be used in the state or exported via the existing interconnectors to Victoria. I have been informed that curtailment on a particular wind farm has been around 3%, but rose to 8% in the last quarter of 2018; if this is typical for all wind farms it is a substantial loss of earning power, and it will only increase as more renewable energy comes on line. The new interconnector will allow increased wind and solar development in SA because any excess, beyond local consumption, will be able to be sent to NSW, displacing coal power there.

There are times when there is wind in SA and not in NSW (and vice-versa), so the new connector will allow one state to help out the other at these times.

Solar power generation in SA peaks later (often an hour or more later), and continues later in the day, than in NSW. Often the peak demand on the NSW power grid comes when solar power in SA is still generating substantial amounts of electricity; the new interconnector will allow this to be sent to the east.

Energy stored in one state will more readily be able to be used in the other state, when needed.

It is expected that the interconnector will be completed about 2022.

This section added

Synchronous condensers

In May 2020 Giles Parkinson wrote an article for Renew Economy reporting that four synchronous condensers were to be installed in the South Australian grid to remove some of the need for our polluting gas fired power generation. Two were being installed near Port Augusta, two more near Robertstown; others were also being installed in the eastern states.

The syncons, as they are called, provide 'system strength' and other services to stabilise the power grid. These services have in the past been provided by spinning gas- or coal-fired generators.

Of course the Morrison federal government is trying to ignore the fact that this can be done, so that they can try to justify continuing to support the fossil fuel industry.

This section added

Perovskite solar panels

Perovskite is a mineral. In regard to the solar panels, it is the crystalline structure of perovskite, more than the chemical composition, that is important. At the time of writing this section perovskite solar panels were not competitive with silicon, but they seem to have great potential and the technology was developing quickly. It could happen in the future that perovskite panels will outperform silicon and be cheaper as well.

Just Have a Think has an interesting talk on perovskite solar panels.

Edited 2020/02/08

Energy storage

The dominant forms of sustainable energy generation, sun and wind, are variable so it will be essential to store energy when it is plentiful so that it can be used as it is needed. There are many ways of doing this, and the technologies are being developed all the time.

I have looked into the amount of storage that will be necessary on another page on this site. It seems that pumped hydro-power is the only technology that is likely to be big enough to handle the loads that we should expect to see.

Open NEM shows that it is not unusual for renewable energy generation (considering only wind and solar) to fall from highs of around 12MW at midday to lows of 3-4MW in the peak demand late afternoon period. Over the year to 2021/01/21 the lowest weekly generation was 439GWh (a week in July) and the highest was 1064GWh (a week in January). The lowest month was June with 2,510GWh and the highest December with 4,250GWh.

I find it very hard to imagine that any form of energy storage could store the necessary amounts in high generation periods to make up for the low generation periods over periods of weeks or months given such variations. It is going to be essential to develop uses for electricity, such as hydrogen generation, that can take up very large amounts of energy and can vary greatly in their loads during the year. I have discussed possible ways of handling seasonal variation in energy generation elsewhere on this page.


Other forms of energy storage

Supercapacitors (ultracapacitors)
Flywheels. Synchronous condensers are a variation on flywheels.
Rail, Advanced Rail Energy Storage; ARES stores energy by raising the elevation of mass against the force of gravity, and recovers the stored energy as the mass is returned to its original location.

There is a much more extensive list in Wikipedia.

Pumped hydropower

At the time of writing (2018) there was little pumped hydro energy storage in Australia; much more was needed and was being considered.

By far the biggest that seems very likely to go ahead is Snowy 2.0 which is to link two existing Snowy Mountain Scheme reservoirs, Tantangara and Talbingo. It is expected to hold a reserve of 350GWh of energy and a maximum power output of 2GW.

The Tasmanian Battery of the Nation project is dependent on two new 750MW power cables being laid beneath Bass Strait, and at present no one seems willing to pay for these. An article published by ARENA gave 4.8GW and 140GWh as the estimated total capacity of the project.

One much smaller project that seems likely to come on-line in the near future is the 250 MW 2,000 MWh Kidston project using a worked-out mine pit as one of the water storages. Another 200-270 MW, 1,600 MWh one at Baroota, a disused reservoir in South Australia, has been proposed (photo in the Potential section); many more are needed. I've written in more detial on pumped hydro elsewhere on this page.

I've written more in the What potential is there? section of this page.


Bloomberg New Energy Finance, as reported in The Sydney Morning Herald by Cole Latimer, 2018/11/07, has suggested that Australia is set to be a leader in what will become a $1.7 trillion battery industry. Bloomberg NEF says that Australia will be one of the nine countries leading this battery charge.

Batteries as 'Virtual' power plants

At the time of writing (2018) several pilot projects were underway in SA, and probably elsewhere too, testing the practicality of integrating household batteries and household solar into the state power grid. The expectation was that this could add flexibility in matching generation to consumption.

In September 2018 the SA (Liberal!) government was aiming at building the world's largest virtual power plant that would eventually include a total of 50,000 houses, 250 MW of solar power and 250 MW/675 MWh of battery storage.

This section added

Energy storage as hydrogen in salt caverns

Excess electrical energy can be used to produce hydrogen which can then be stored. Hydrogen is difficult to store cheaply except in salt caverns.

A proposal in South Australia

A very big wind farm aiming at producing hydrogen with storage in salt caverns has been proposed in South Australia's Eyre Peninsula. Should these salt beds prove suitable for hydrogen storage they could be of value to the whole NEM, if power transmission infrastructure was put in place.
This is of particular relevance to the hydrogen storage potential in salt beds on western Eyre Peninsula in South Australia.

A quote from Ent X, a business that has proposed a salt cavern hydrogen storage on Eyre Peninsula, "Bloomberg NEF reports levelised cost of hydrogen storage (LCOS):

  • engineered tanks US$2.30/kg;
  • depleted gas field US$1.90/kg;
  • rock cavern $0.71/kg;
  • salt cavern $0.23/kg".
A document (on page 3) by Bloomberg NEF gives the above cost for salt cavern storage and also a 'Possible future LCOS' in salt caverns at $0.11. Both are far cheeper for long term (weeks or months) storage for large volumes than any alternative.

I've written more on this page about the advantages of bringing Eyre Peninsula into the National Electricity Market.

Edited 2020/01/26

Energy storage as heat


Another form of energy storage as 'heat', 2020/12/30

‘Water battery’ a winner for Australian university;

"The thermal energy storage tank, located at USC’s main campus on Queensland’s Sunshine Coast, is powered by a 2.1 MW solar PV system which produces enough energy to cool 4.5 megalitres of water, effectively acting as an 8 MW battery. The cooled water is stored and used for air conditioning, which is currently the single biggest user of electricity at the campus, accounting for approximately 60% of its energy use."

Energy can be stored as heat. It has long been stored in the form of heat in hot water, both domestically (a domestic water heater is a storage of thermal energy) and industrially.

One of the great advantages of solar thermal power stations is that it is easy to integrate energy storage with them, usually in the form of molten salt.

Storage of energy is also being explored in molten silicon. At the time of writing (August 2019), molten silicon was looking promising. According to Wikipedia molten silicon can store a megawatt-hour of energy in each cubic metre; a very high energy density. The technology had been trialed on a limited scale in conjunction with the use of captured methane in a waste water treatment plant near Adelaide in South Australia in 2019.

This section added

Compressed air energy storage

There are a number of ways in which energy can be stored in the form of compressed air. At the time of writing (2018) this method has not been used on a utility scale in Australia (so far as I know), although there is a 5 MW/10 MWh pilot project being built near Strathalbyn in South Australia. See Renew Economy for more information.

This method seems to have a lot of undeveloped potential in Australia.

Wikipedia has an extensive article on compressed air energy storage.

This section added

Cryogenic energy storage: CES

A large subgroup of CES systems are liquid air batteries that involved using energy to liquify air, which can be conveniently stored at least for a number of hours, and getting some part of the original energy back when the liquid air is allowed to revert to its gaseous state. Wikipedia has an article on CESs.

The challenge with CESs seems to be in getting a high level of round-trip-efficiency.

There is a good talk on Just Have a Think about liquid air batteries.

Aluminium smelters could become virtual batteries

Transforming the Way Electricity is Consumed During the Aluminium Smelting Process, by Mark Dorreen, Linda Wright, Geoff Matthews, Pretesh Patel and David S. Wong.

Aluminium smelters consume a huge amount of electricity. Changing them to allow their electricity consumption and aluminium production to vary according to the electricity price and availability could be a win-win situation for the aluminium industry and the renewable energy industry.

Quoting from the Abstract:

"The EnPot technology can be used to help the aluminium smelting industry be part of the solution to accommodate increased intermittency in our future renewable energy generation, post COP 21. The EnPot system provides for the first time, dynamic control of the heat balance of aluminium smelting pots across the potline, so that energy consumption and aluminium production can be increased or decreased by as much as plus or minus 30% almost instantaneously."

Peaking power

At least until various forms of energy storage (such as pumped hydro) can fill in the generation gaps from renewables we will need peaking power, which currently means gas-fired generation.

Base-load power

With the current growth in renewables and energy storage there is absolutely no need for new base-load (coal or nuclear) power in Australia.

On the matter of base-load power generation the National Energy Emissions Audit from The Australia institute of August 2019, written by Hugh Saddler, stated:

"South Australian electricity supply system provides real world evidence of how a new base load generator, such as a nuclear power station, could not be incorporated into a system with a high proportion of variable renewable generation. The best complement for high renewables is storage and a diversity (in location and type) of renewables."
While in 2019 SA was well ahead of the other mainland states in the adoption of renewable energy, wind power in particular, the eastern states were catching up. Tasmania too would not have any use for a base-load power station, because of its very high level of hydro power and increasing wind power.

I have discussed the myth of base-load elsewhere.

ANU report, 2018/09/10

Australia’s renewable energy industry is delivering rapid and deep emissions cuts; written by Ken Baldwin, Andrew Blakers and Matthew Stocks. Quoting from the Summary:
"During 2018 and 2019 Australia is likely to install about 10,400 Megawatts (MW) of new renewable energy, comprising 7,200 MW of large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and windfarms together with 3,200 MW of small-scale rooftop PV systems. Combined, this represents 30% of Australia’s peak electricity demand. The Australian renewable energy industry is convincingly demonstrating its capacity to install large amounts of wind and PV systems. If industry is able to continue to deploy wind and PV at the current rate into 2020 and beyond then Australia will:
  • comfortably exceed the 2020 large scale Renewable Energy Target (LRET) of 33,000 GWh
  • be capable of supplying up to 29% renewable electricity in 2020, 50% in 2025 and 100% in the early 2030s
  • achieve 26% emissions reductions in the electricity sector by 2020/21
  • meet its entire 26% Paris emission reduction target for the whole economy in 2024/25
The current deployment rate could well continue. Prices of wind and PV are falling rapidly, potentially opening new markets and placing downwards pressure on electricity prices. Opportunities are broadening beyond the wholesale market as companies recognise the economic and environmental credential benefits of renewable energy."
It is particularly interesting that all this progress was being made at the same time as the Liberal-National coalition federal government was dishonestly ridiculing South Australia's very successful adoption of renewable energy, trying to support the dying coal industry and slow the growth of renewables.

This section added

Seasonal variation in generation

Open NEM shows that solar- plus wind-generated electricity in the NEM states of Australia (all states other than WA) varied from a low of 2,510GWh in June 2020 to 4,250GWh in December of that year. Most of the variation from month to month was in solar, wind generation didn't show any distinct seasonal variation.

As renewables come to provide a greater and greater proportion of Australia's power how can this seasonal variation be handled? A few possibilities come to mind:

  • Hydrogen can be produced in periods of high generation and stored or shipped overseas as ammonia or methylcyclohexane. (Methylcyclohexane has the disadvantage of being very toxic to aquatic life according to Wikipedia, leading to risks in shipping);

  • There will always be a demand for fresh water in Australia. Water could be desalinated in the high-generation months and stored in the existing reservoirs;

  • Would it be feasible to run aluminium smelters only in the high-generation months?

As discussed under Energy storage it seems highly unlikely that the quantities of electricity involved can practically be saved using technologies such as pumped hydro, much less in batteries.

This section added

Further into the future

All new roofs will generate power

I can foresee a time when all new roofing will be photo-voltaic; and I don't think it will be very far off. If your roof can generate power, either for your own use or for you to sell to others, why not? I suspect that in a few years there will be little difference in the cost between 'ordinary' roofing and PV roofing.

Walls and windows could also be made capable of generating electricity; photo-voltaic window materials are already commercially available or close to it. Even paths and roads can be made to generate power.

There will be a time, and it will not be a long while off, when it will be thought very inefficient to not generate power from any artificial surface that is exposed to bright light.
This section added

What technology mix will we have in fifty years time?

Quite apart from the urgency of action to limit climate change and related problems, at the time of writing this section there is an accelerated push for more renewable energy worldwide because of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. In Australia there is an additional urgency because there is something of a crisis in Australia's eastern states due to unavailability of some coal and gas fired generators at the times when they are needed.

Also at the time of writing, solar PV and wind power are cheap and becoming widespread, but their great and obvious limitation is that they are not necessarily available when and where they are needed. So either energy or power must be moved from where it is abundant to where it is in short supply, or some means must be used to store it until it is needed.


More information

I've written in more detail about most of these points elsewhere on this page.
There are many possible combinations of technologies that could develop, each comes with its own limitations and problems:

  • Batteries are being built at a great rate at present. Problems are:
    • sourcing materials - boron mining in Congo has serious social and environmental problems;
    • limited lifetime, perhaps 10 years;
    • will the materials ever be fully recyclable?
    • considering the whole of batteries impacts, from mining to recycling/disposal, are batteries environmentally friendly?

  • More transmission lines are also being seen as a partial answer at present. Problems are:
    • Many birds are killed by collisions with transmission lines;
    • There is strong public resistance to having nearby transmission lines.

  • Hydrogen (and ammonia) as an energy storage medium. Problems are:
    • At the present hydrogen produced from renewable energy is more expensive than that produced from fossil fuels;
    • Production of hydrogen from renewable energy is not energy-efficient;
    • Hydrogen is much more difficult to store and transport than is petroleum;
    • Ammonia can be made from hydrogen and nitrogen (from the air) and hydrogen can be recovered from ammonia. While ammonia is much more easily stored and transported than hydrogen the conversion (either way) is not cheap or energy-efficient;
    • Hydrogen can be efficiently used to produce heat, and is fairly efficient in its use in transport, but using hydrogen to produce electricity is not energy-efficient.

  • Pumped hydro energy storage. Problems are:
    • Pumped hydro power systems cannot be built as quickly as can batteries;
    • The need for a water supply is challenging in a dry country such as Australia. To a large extent, the same water is used over and over again, but there are evaporation losses;
    • Power from pumped hydro is not instantly available, unlike battery power.

  • Nuclear
    • Nuclear power is much more expensive than solar PV and wind power;
    • Building nuclear power stations is very slow;
    • Nobody wants a nearby nuclear power station;
    • Nuclear power is suitable for base load power (generating all the time), but lacks the quick flexibility needed to fit in with sustainable energy;
    • There is not enough accessible uranium ore to provide a substantial part of the world's energy demand for any length of time;
    • Disposal of spent fuel and decommissioning of old nuclear power stations are problems that have not yet been solved.
All, or any, of the above will cost billions of dollars by the time they are developed to the point that they are capable of solving our energy problems.

The big unknown: what will future governments do?

It was announced on 2018/08/26 that Angus Taylor was Australia's new Energy Minister in the Morrison Coalition Government. At the time I hoped for the sake of the nation and the world that Mr Taylor was far better informed on energy in 2018 than he was back in 2012, but that hope proved to be unjustified. I had an argument with Angus about wind power on his Facebook page in 2012, when it became clear he was losing the argument he deleted it. Fortunately I kept a copy.

At least to January 2020 the Morrison Government had continued the anti-renewable energy stance of the previous Turnbull and Abbott governments.

Like the Turnbull Government, the Morrison Government has laboured the point of reliability of the electricity supply. AEMO's Electricity Statement of Opportunities, September 2017 forecast "From 2018–19 to 2021–22, progressively decreasing levels of potential USE [Unserved Energy - power failures due to insufficient generation] conditions are observed over the next four summers, due to increasing renewable generation." The AEMO report foresaw the highest chance of a USE event happening in financial year 2017/18. There were none in SA so far as I know.

Future federal governments

As of early 2020 the Liberal/National coalition showed no sign of significant action toward reducing fossil fuel emissions. The federal Labor Opposition under Anthony Albanese has stated that it will continue to support expansion of coal mining in Australia.

South Australia's state government

A long-standing Labor government was replaced by a Liberal government in March 2018. Surprisingly, the new Liberal government has recognised the value of SA's renewable energy. While they have been careful to not criticise the federal Coalition government they seem to pose no danger to renewable energy developments in South Australia.

What potential is there?
We've just scratched the surface so far.

Wind resource map of Australia
Wind resources in Australia
Image from Aust. Dept. of the Environment, Renewable Energy Atlas of Australia
(Apparently no longer available – 2011/03/18)

Wind power potential

Onshore wind power

The map on the right shows the best wind power resource areas in Australia in red.

At the time of writing (2018) wind power development in Australia has been confined to areas that were close to existing high capacity power lines; not a single transmission line has been built anywhere in Australia to connect an area of high wind potential to the NEM (National Electricity Market) or the SWIS (SW Interconnected Network) in WA.

South Australia has gone much further in developing wind power than any other state, with close to 50% of total generation being by wind at the time of writing. Even in SA there is room for far more; for example the map shows that Yorke and Eyre Peninsulas, in South Australia west of Adelaide, have excellent wind power resources. Wind power developments on both peninsulas have reached the (small) maximum imposed by the existing low-capacity transmission lines. South Australia's current wind power, 1.8 GW at the end of 2017, could be doubled or more if there was a power transmission system capable of taking the energy.

Other states have huge untapped wind power potential

Offshore wind power potential

This section added
At the International Renewable Energy Congress of 2022 at Murdoch University in WA Dr Jana Orszaghova stated that Australian offshore wind power potential was greater than that in Europe and the USA combined. Her group had estimated that Australian offshore wind potential was greater than 2000GW. At the time there were 32 offshore wind farms proposed in Australia, amounting to 45GW.

At the time of writing (2018) my impression is that there are no proposed offshore wind farm proposals that are very far advanced. One or two of those in the Bass Strait area are probably the most advanced. In Western Australia Myalup Wind Farm, near my current home, is the most advanced, but at best it will not be operational for nine or ten years.

Offshore wind power has been much more expensive than onshore, but with substantial and greatly accelerating offshore development overseas costs have come down substantially; see Unearthed and Wind Power Monthly.

There are advantages to offshore wind power compared to onshore:

  • There are no transport constraints due to road access, length limits, weight limits;
  • Winds over the sea tend to be more consistent and less turbulent than those over land;
  • Turbines can be bigger and turbine towers taller because they don't have to be transported by trucks, they are transported by ships;
  • The problems due to nearby habitation that exist for some onshore wind farms do not arise;
  • Turbine bases form anchoring points for marine life: a boost for marine biodiversity.
What is the potential of Australia's offshore wind power? It could exceed onshore, I'd say that 25 GW would be conservative.

The 137.5 MW first stage of Bungala Solar Farm, under construction
A composite of several drone photos taken during construction, 2018/05/10.
The curvature of the rows and road is an artefact of the compositing process.

Looking ahead

"Solar energy is vast, ubiquitous and indefinitely sustainable. Simple calculations show that less than 1% of the world’s land area would be required to provide all of the world’s energy from solar power – much of it on building roofs, in deserts and floating on water bodies.

Solar systems use only very common materials (we could never run out), have minimal need for mining (about 1% of that needed for equivalent fossil or nuclear fuels), have minimal security and military risks (we will never go to war over solar access), cannot have significant accidents (unlike nuclear), and have minimal environmental impact over unlimited time scales."

The above quote is from an article in The Conversation, 2020/01/16, written by Andrew Blakers.


Rooftop solar potential – a calculation

Using two quite different methods for estimating the total area of Australia's roofs I calculated 3,000km2 and 2,740km2. On the left I have calculated that 3,500km2 would be sufficient to power the nation in a high insolation part of Australia. Australia's big cities are not in high insolation areas, but still, a substantial part of Australia's electricity demand could, in theory, be generated on our rooftops.

A study discussed in Wikipedia "found that the combined annual output from rooftop solar in Australia could theoretically reach 245 TWh".

Solar power potential

Solar power resources in Australia's inland are as good as any in the world.

Just in my state, South Australia, the potential for solar power development in the huge area north of Port Augusta – about 2/3 of the state – is mind-boggling. All that is lacking for its development is transmission lines and federal government getting out of the way.

What area of solar panels would be needed to power Australia?

The area of the part of SA, where there is high insolation (high levels of sunshine) north of the settled districts is around 700,000 km2. Solar farms installed capacities for that area could be expected to be at least 40 MW/km2. So, if 1% of the area of northern SA, 7,000 km2, was covered in solar panels the capacity would be 280 GW and this, using a capacity factor of 24%, would generate around 600 TWh/year, more than twice the total annual electricity consumption of Australia.

Putting it another way, 3,500 km2 of solar panels in outback SA would be enough to power the whole country.

The potential for the whole nation boggles the mind!

Pumped hydro energy storage

At the time of writing (2018) there were three major pumped hydro installations in Australia:
Tumut 3, NSW, Snowy Mountains Scheme
Registered capacity 600 MW
Commissioned in 1959

Shoalhaven, NSW
Registered capacity 240 MW
Commissioned in 1977. In November 2018 Shoalhaven owners Origin Energy were investigating increasing the capacity to 475 MW.

Wivenhoe, Queensland
Registered capacity 480 MW
Commissioned in 1984
Baroota Reservoir; proposed for use for pumped hydro – see text
Baroota Reservoir
The upper reservoir will be near the top of the ridge in the background, 200 m above the water level of the dam; a drilling rig may be seen on the ridge in high-definition version of this photo.
Photo taken using my drone, 2018/08/21.

Snowy Hydro 2.0

In the future is the huge potential of Snowy Hydro 2.0 which will be able to supply 2,000 MW of power for up to 175 hours (total energy storage 350,000 MWh). It has serious technical challenges associated with the geology where the proposed tunnels will have to go and just with its huge size, length of tunnel, and great hydraulic head.

The greatest question with Snowy Hydro 2.0 is whether it can compete with a number of smaller installations elsewhere.

Tasmania 'Battery of the Nation'

Of particular interest is the potentially 4,800 MW Tasmanian 'Battery of the Nation' supported by ARENA. (This is more than twice the expected power capacity of Snowy Hydro 2.0.) The Tasmanian proposal will require a second Bass-Link undersea electricity interconnector, but that uses well established technology.

Australian pumped hydro potential research

An Australian National University group under Andrew Blakers identified 5000 potential pumped hydro sites in mid 2017 each bigger than 1,000 MWh.

Apart from capacity, pumped hydro has a huge advantage over batteries in its longevity; while a battery can be expected to last for a decade or so, most of the components of a pumped hydro installation will last many decades. On top of this is the question of the recyclability of the components of a battery.

An early pilot floating solar power installation
floating solar
On common effluent ponds at Jamestown in Mid-North South Austalia. Photo 2016/12/12

Pilot projects

At the time of writing (2018) several pilot projects were underway testing the practicality of integrating household batteries and household solar into the state power grid. The expectation was that this could add flexibility in matching generation to consumption.

Reducing evaporation on pumped hydro storages

Evaporative losses from water storages is a major problem in Australia. While most pumped hydro storages are not large, evaporation losses will still potentially be significant. However there are ways of reducing the losses, even of making good use of the area available to generate more renewable electricity.

In early 2018 a 100 kW floating solar farm had been completed on effluent ponds in Lismore, NSW, with a proposal of installing another 500 kW later. The photo on the right is of an early (2015) pilot installation at Jamestown, South Australia.

Solar panels have been installed on a bigger scale, a megawatt, over irrigation channels in Gujarat, India in a project expected to reduce evaporation by 34 ML per year. Forty megawatts of floating solar panels have also been installed in an area flooded due to coal mining subsidence in China.

More information

I've written more on pumped hydro and pumped hydro using old mines on other pages on this site.

This section added

Working together: wind and solar complementing each other

South Australia's power generation over one day
South Australia's power generation sources over a 24 hour period, 2019/12/07-08
Image credit Open NEM
The graph on the right shows how wind power and solar power can, and do, complement each other.

When the sun is not shining (more accurately, when the light is not bright, solar power is also generated under cloudy conditions) the wind may be blowing and wind power abundant; as in the right-hand side of the image on the right.

When the wind isn't blowing there may be abundant solar energy, as in the left-hand side of the image.

In South Australia at least it has been noted that winds tend to be stronger at night than in the day.

In this particular 24-hour period 30% of the state's power was generated by solar PV and 39% by wind power; 69% total renewables. Batteries provided 0.6% of the state's demand; expect to see far more energy storage in the future.


At the time of writing, in 2019, there were seven countries in Europe that had announced measures to phase out petrol and diesel vehicles in favour of electric models: France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Netherlands, Scotland, the UK. The Indian government has said that every vehicle sold in the country should be powered by electricity by 2030. According to CNN Business:
"Austria, China, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Portugal, Korea and Spain have set official targets for electric car sales. The United States doesn't have a federal policy, but at least eight states have set out goals."

In 2019 it was obvious that electrically powered vehicles were the future of land transport, but Australia, due to its government being corrupted by fossil fuel interests, was a long way behind most of the rest of the world. Before the May 2019 federal election Australia's Energy Minister, Angus Taylor, was rubbishing EVs.

In an article written 2019/04/08 by Ben Potter in the Financial Review Australian billionaire Mike Cannon-Brookes was quoted as saying that PM Morrison and Minister Taylor were 'tied up in knots' on EV; they were contradicting their own past statements.


In this section I try to follow a line of logical thinking keeping in mind the economics, the need to maintain a reliable power supply and the need to reduce emissions. While the last of these is uppermost in my mind, on this page I try to accept the reality that it seems to have a low priority among those in positions of power (particularly the federal government and the owners of the big fossil-fuelled power stations). In Australia there is a large and powerful lobby for the continued use of fossil fuels.

As discussed above, South Australia sometimes generates more renewable energy than it can consume or export via electricity transmission lines to the eastern states. This excess at present poses problems; but it should be seen as a potential great asset; as renewable energy could be to the whole nation.

There are some technical challenges involved in achieving the full future potential of Australia's (and the world's) renewable energy resources.

Renewables are now the cheapest form of new-build generation

The cost of a solar system in the 10-100 kilowatt installed capacity range as of early 2021 is around $1000 per kilowatt. See Solar Choice. Larger installations have slightly lower costs per kilowatt.
We all know how important money is; money is a factor in practically every major decision. The fact that onshore wind power and solar PV are now the cheapest ways of generating electricity will certainly be a game-changer. We are already seeing an explosion in the numbers of medium to large-scale solar PV farms.

Integrating generation, storage and consumption in the power grid


Integration of generation, storage and consumption at home

Another section on this page deals with the great opportunity that exists in the integration of generation, storage and consumption at home.
In the past solar PV generation in Australia has been fed directly into the grid, irrespective of when the power is most needed. It is best if the power could be released as it is needed, particularly in areas having limited flexibility, such as communities at the end of long, limited capacity, power lines.

ARENA Wire, 2018/08/18, described the trial of a system on Tasmania's Bruny Island...

It is an "innovative project using solar and batteries to meet energy needs during holiday periods, when the island’s population soars.

The fully automated Network-Aware Coordination (NAC) system being used is the first of its kind. In the trial, it coordinates batteries equipped with Reposit controllers, to support the network when and where it is needed. In the future, it will also have the capacity to integrate EVs, smart appliances and other distributed resources as they come online."

We will see more and more of this sort of thing, with energy storage being combined with solar and wind power in distributed, rather than centralised systems.

Hydrogen generated from renewable energy


Hydrogen, ammonia, hydrogen

Hydrogen can be produced from water using renewable energy;
The hydrogen can then be used as a fuel, or;

It can be used to produce ammonia which can conveniently be stored until it is needed or shipped to where it is needed;
Ammonia can be used to produce a number of useful products, particularly fertilisers, or;

The ammonia can be broken down into nitrogen and hydrogen;
The hydrogen can be used as a fuel.
Hydrogen can also be used to produce methylcyclohexane, which, like ammonia is easier to transport than hydrogen.

An opportunity in 'unusable' solar power?

Giles Parkinson wrote in RenewEconomy 2019/12/20 of more than a million dollars a day of solar power unable to be used because of potential instability in the Victorian grid.
"Five operating solar farms – four in Victoria and one in NSW – have had their output curtailed [by AEMO] by half since mid September after modelling revealed “system strength issues”, and the risk of severe “oscillation” in the event of a major network fault or outage."

Surely there is potential for using the excess power to produce hydrogen.


Related pages on this site

There is a page on Hydrogen and Energy: The production and uses, and advantages and disadvantages, of hydrogen as a fuel.

There is a page on Power to (hydrogen) Gas (P2G) in Australia.

Hydrogen for steel making

An article in Renew Economy, written by Michael Mazengarb on 2019/11/13, titled Another nail in coal’s coffin? German steel furnace runs on renewable hydrogen in world first. "Traditionally coke, made out of high-grade coal, has been used for steel-making. German manufacturing giant Thyssenkrupp has completed a successful, first-of-its-kind demonstration of running a steel furnace completely on hydrogen, a development that is likely to further dent the future prospects for the global coal industry."

The use of hydrogen to support steel manufacturing is also being investigated in South Australia, and there has to be huge potential for this technology in places like Western Australia's Pilbara, where there are both enormous iron ore and renewable energy resources (wind and solar). Renewably produced iron and steel would have a far greater value to Australia than raw iron ore.

Also see BHP to pilot green smelting furnace using electricity, hydrogen and Pilbara iron ore, written for Renew Economy by Amalyah Hart on 2023/03/23.

Hydrogen to replace natural gas

In addition to using the renewably generated hydrogen in a new export industry it can simply be used as a supplement or replacement for natural gas (which cannot last for ever and produces carbon dioxide when burned). An article on the ARENA site discusses the use of Hydrogen Direct Reduced Iron in combination with electric arc furnaces to produce steel with low emissions.

Hydrogen powered vehicles

Hydrogen powered vehicles are very rare in Australia, but there are a number overseas. If Australia had plentiful renewably generated hydrogen they could become a very attractive economic and environmental proposition in Australia.

Electric vehicles

The number of battery-electric vehicles being built is increasing at an exponential rate. They are uncommon in Australia because of a total lack of the financial incentives that there are in many overseas countries, but there is no doubt that Australia will eventually join the trend. Of course that will increase the demand for electricity, and, even better, there should be some flexibility in the times when EVs can be charged; preferentially when renewable energy is plentifully available.

Cars are by no means the only mode of transport going electric, commuter busses will be early adopters of electric motivation; electric training aircraft are already popular, electric trucks and ships are coming.

This section added

Producing iron from iron ore using renewable energy powered chemical electrolysis

Sophie Vorrath wrote an article for Renew Economy on 2023/03/24 titled Fortescue hails “green iron” breakthrough as own coal-free tech moves to pilot phase.

The article stated that Fortescue Future Industries (FFI) had revealed "that the company’s iron ore is being converted to metallic iron using electrolysis, where an electric current is used directly to remove oxygen from the iron oxide ore at a low temperature, removing the need to use coal." The electricity required is, or can be, generated renewably.

Almost all of the world's iron is currently being smelted from iron (oxide) ore using coal, in the form of coke. The process releases about 1.9 tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere for every tonne of steel produced. This new electrolytic process developed by FFI seems to have the potential to reduce the greenhouse emissions from iron and steel production to very low levels.

Exporting renewable energy beyond Australia: a great opportunity

See, for example, the proposed Asian Renewable Hub project, below.

Exporting sustainable electricity

See, for example, the proposed Sun Cable project, below.

Exporting hydrogen products made using sustainable electricity
Including in the form of Ammonia

Australia could become a leading nation in the export of renewable energy by using it to produce hydrogen, converting this to ammonia and shipping the ammonia overseas.

Why not just ship the hydrogen overseas? Hydrogen cannot be liquified by pressure alone, it must also be made very cold, even then it has a very low density and that means it takes up a lot of space and a lot of energy is used in refrigeration. It can be done, but it is expensive. On the other hand ammonia is easily liquified and there is already a major international trade in ammonia and it has many industrial uses. If required, ammonia can easily be broken back down into nitrogen and hydrogen.

By exporting ammonia Australia could further develop its huge potential wind and solar resources; we have hardly scratched the surface yet.

Hydrogen can also be used to produce methylcyclohexane, which, like ammonia is easier to transport than hydrogen. (Methylcyclohexane has the disadvantage of being very toxic to aquatic life according to Wikipedia, leading to risks in shipping.)

Value adding to our exports: Making the most of our cheap energy

The energy of the future, if humanity is to have a future, will be renewable energy; it must be.

Australia's renewable energy resources are among the best in the world and, as of the time of writing, early 2020, are cheaper than no-renewable alternatives, so energy in the future will be more plentiful and cheap in Australia than in most other countries.

Iron, aluminium and other metals

So instead of exporting metal ores in the future it will make far more sense to use our cheap energy to convert those ores into metals and make more export income out of them. Converting them to metals also means much lower weight in the exported products so lower costs in the exporting.


There is a huge and growing market for high purity silicon for computers, solar panels and other uses. At present Australia produces only a very small part of the world's high-purity silicon (about 1%, if I remember correctly). The main requirements for the production of high-purity silicon is high-purity quartz or quartz sand (quartz is silicon dioxide) and abundant cheap energy. Australia has both.

Of course the same argument stands for any energy intensive value adding manufacturing process; it will make more sense to do it in Australia than elsewhere.


Some technical points on hydrogen-ammonia-hydrogen conversion

Hydrogen can be produced from water using renewable energy and electrolysis, but hydrogen is not easy to store or transport. It is easy to combine hydrogen with nitrogen to produce ammonia which can readily be stored and transported, and then it is easy to recover the hydrogen from the ammonia. Ammonia could be readily stored in a car's fuel tank and then broken down to hydrogen which could power the car in fuel cells, but there has been one catch. Any trace of ammonia in the hydrogen used in the car's fuel cells will quickly damage them.

Possible breakthrough solution to the ammonia contamination problem

The problem may have been overcome by CSIRO researchers using a breakthrough membrane that, we are told, separates very high purity hydrogen from the ammonia. On 2018/08/08 Brisbane ABC posted a piece by Lexy Hamilton-Smith on online news about the testing of two hydrogen powered cars based in the CSIRO technology.

This has the potential to provide a market for the excess renewable energy that could be generated in Australia in the future.

This section added

A more speculative possibility; integration of solar power and rainwater collection

One of my pages that has generated considerable feedback is about reducing evaporation from farm dams.
There is a great need for water in many parts of the world, certainly including my home, Mid-North South Australia.

At the time of writing (2018) building a small solar farm in my area is marginally economical. If rainwater could be collected at the same time as generating electricity to sell into the grid it would improve the economics significantly.

I can think of at least three local situations where integrating small-scale solar generation with rainwater collection would be very attractive:

  • Many vignerons (wine-grape growers) in the Mid-North region need more water than is currently available to them. Wine grapes are a crop that has high value per unit water required;
  • Farms without reticulated water;
  • Lifestyle people with small holdings.
A realistic expectation for solar panel generation in my region is 40 Watts per square metre of panels (that is, about 200 Watts installed capacity, about 40 Watts generation averaged over a year). In an area with an annual rainfall of 500mm, 500 litres of rain falls on each square metre of ground (or solar panels, assuming that they are horizontal). A very small solar 'farm' of 100 square metres would be expected to collect 50kL of rainwater and generate about 35,000kWh per year (40 × 100 × 24 × 365 / 1000). The economics would obviously depend very much on both the cost of installation (prices for installations of around 40kW seem to be around $42,000 as of 2020) and the selling price for the power; assuming 10¢/kWh, the income would be $3,500 per year.

Would the collection of 50kL of water per year be a significant additional incentive? That would be up to the individual to decide.


I have read some concern about possible contaminants in rainwater running off solar panels (possibly especially if the panels are damaged). As a great many roofs that have been used to collect rainwater have solar panels on them and I have never heard of contamination problems, I doubt that this is a point for significant concern.

Related sites

A related idea, using solar panels to harvest water from the humidity of the air: Steemit and Smart Energy Council.

High prices; the effects

Australia's power prices have been high by world standards and this fact has had a lot of publicity.

High electricity prices have encouraged householders to install solar power. They have encouraged many businesses to install solar too; in addition a number of big businesses have contracted power purchase agreements with the owners of wind farms or solar farms.

The consequence of high power prices, it seems to me, has been, and will continue to be, for more and more individuals and businesses to switch to renewable energy and therefore increasing amounts of renewable energy being built.

Cost of energy

Conventional LCOE estimates for selected technonogies
Cost of energy graph
The table lists only low emission technologies; the cost of carbon capture and storage (CCS) greatly increases the cost of fossil fuel generation.

Why have electricity prices been high in Australia?

Two of the main reasons are:
  1. The distances that power has to be transmitted in Australia are large and long high-capacity power lines are expensive;
  2. There has been a lack of effective power policy from the federal government for many years; see the effects of uncertainty, below.
Irresponsible people have blamed high power prices on renewable energy but this is plainly absurd because until very recently renewable energy has made up a very small part of Australia's energy supply.

Cost of renewable energy

The graphic on the right is from the CSIRO report "Electricity generation technology projections 2017-2050" by Jenny A Hayward and Paul W Graham, December 2017.

For a full understanding of the table the reader should refer to the CSIRO report. The CSIRO table does not include the cost of gas fired electricity generation, that is included in a costings report from the World Energy Council on another page on this site.

The graph and the CSIRO report show clearly that renewables are cheaper than new-build coal-fired (and nuclear) power stations.

Uncertainty; the effects

For years there has been a lot of uncertainty in the future of power generation in Australia. One of the responses to this is for businesses to make their own arrangements for power supply by either installing their own solar power or contracting the owners of wind or solar farms for power supplies.

So the consequence of uncertainty to the power generation industry, it seems to me, has been, and will continue to be, for more and more consumers, individuals or businesses, to switch to renewable energy and therefore increasing amounts of renewable energy being built.

Environmental concerns

Wind power and environment

I have written at length about environmental and other concerns regarding wind power on another page on this site.

Solar power and environment

How utility-scale solar farms interact with the local environment seems to not have received a lot of attention.

Legitimate concerns include:

  • Utility scale solar developments can take good agricultural land out of production;
  • Utility scale solar farms in grazing or arid country can change the habitat of the local plants and animals;
  • Insufficient consideration seems to have been given to how vegetation, whether desirable or undesirable, is going to interact with the panel arrays of solar farms;
  • What impact will high densities of solar panels have on runoff and erosion?
  • Will large solar farms have any impact on the likelihood, frequency and severity of frosts on adjacent land?
  • Can grazing or some form of agriculture be advantageously integrated with solar farms?
I suspect that, as in this example, the solar panels could increase agricultural productivity if used well. For example, solar panels could reduce soil temperatures beneath the panels during the summer. I have written more on this elsewhere on this page.

How should decisions be made?

Who should make the decisions that need to be made about Australia's energy future?
How should they be made?
What aims should there be behind the decisions?

The decisions should be made by an unbiased body that is fully informed and has the required knowledge, or access to that knowledge. It follows that they should not be made by politicians.

The decisions should be made by a competent and independent body under instruction to:

  1. Take full account of the economics of the power supply system;
  2. Consider the future opportunities such as the exporting of energy in one form or another;
  3. Give a high priority to the reliability of the power supply system;
  4. Give full consideration to the available technologies and the technologies that are likely to become available in the near future;
  5. Take into account Australia's commitments and ethical responsibilities to lower greenhouse gas emissions as much as is reasonably possible within economic and technological constraints.

This section added

Inspirational aspirations
by state and territory governments and entrepreneurs

A small part of a South Australian wind farm
Wind farm
A photo of a part of the North Brown Hill Wind Farm in Mid North South Australia, near my home.

This is only a small taste of what is to come.


Environmental impacts

I have written about the environmental implications of renewable energy installations on another page on this site.
While the Australian federal governments of Abbott, Turnbull and Morrison have been trying for more than seven years (at the time of writing of this section) to slow the development of renewable energy and support the disastrous fossil fuel industries other forces in Australia have been moving on.

Until about 2016 state Liberal governments in Australian were usually opposed to action on climate change, particularly wind power development. From that time onward there was a remarkable change toward a far more ethical stance. Why the state Liberals were able to see the light while the federals continued to wallow in darkness is a mystery to me, and, I suspect, to most Australians.

At the time of writing (January 2021) most states and territories had a net zero emission plan aimed at 2050. Of course it is easy for governments to make such long term plans in the knowledge that many changes (including in the party in power) will come in that time.

Australian Capital Territory

In 2016, the ACT Government legislated a new target of sourcing 100% renewable electricity by 2020 – from within the ACT or across the national power grid. By the beginning of 2020 their target had been achieved, as reported in an article written for SBS by Brett Mason.

New South Wales

In November 2020 the NSW Government's $32 billion renewable energy plan was announced. A large part of it seems to be in establishing five Renewable Energy Zones. The government has a target of net zero emissions by 2050. Stage 1 of this, forecasts delivering a 35% emissions reduction in NSW by 2030 compared to 2005. The Net Zero Plan Stage 1:
"... will support a range of initiatives targeting electricity and energy efficiency, electric vehicles, hydrogen, primary industries, coal innovation, organic waste and carbon financing."

Also see the NSW Government's Electricity Infrastructure Roadmap which, among other things, aims to attract $32 billion in private investment, mainly directed toward renewable energy, by 2030.

Northern Territory

Nothing to see here


At the time of writing (2018) Queensland had an ambitious renewable energy target of 50% renewable energy by 2030.

It had a very slow start in renewable energy. After building the 22MW Windy Hill Wind Farm in the year 2000 no further wind farms were built until the 43MW Kennedy Wind Farm in 2018. Meanwhile more than 5000MW of wind power had been built elsewhere in Australia.

However, since then they have greatly increased their aspirations.

The Queensland government, on a page titled "Achieving our renewable energy targets" that I accessed on 2020/12/23 stated:

"We set a target for 1 million rooftops or 3,000 megawatts of solar photovoltaics (PV) in Queensland by 2020. This goal was reached in October 2018. There is now more than 4,000 megawatts of small and large-scale solar power, effectively making solar power the largest power station in the state. With over 580,000 solar systems already connected, Queensland has the highest number of installations in Australia. This number continues to grow as solar PV is cheaper than grid-supplied electricity in many cases."
The government Web page went on: "Queensland is expected to supply 20% of its electricity consumption with renewable energy sources by the end of 2020, making significant progress to reaching its 50% renewable energy target by 2030." In fact, in the year to 2020/12/23 OpenNEM indicated that they had only achieved 16.2% renewables in the previous year.

South Australia

It was reported in an article in Renew Economy, 2020/05/06, that:
"South Australian energy minister Dan van Holst Pellekaan has set himself a goal of getting the state to its ambitious target of “net 100 per cent renewable electricity” before 2030, rather than the formal aspirational target of some time in the 2030s."
Energy Minister Dan van Holst Pellekaan said that AEMO's estimate was that SA would be "a bit in excess of 85% by 2025". SA achieved 59% renewable energy in 2020.

The SA government has suggested that 500% renewable energy by 2050 is a reasonable aspiration.


Tasmania's Minister for Energy, Guy Barnett, has stated that:
"The Tasmanian Renewable Energy Target (TRET) will double our renewable generation to a global-leading target of 200 per cent of our current needs by 2040."
Tasmania had already achieved 99% of their power demand being generated by renewables, mainly hydro, by 2020 (ref. Open NEM, 2020/12/23).


The Liberal governments of Bailieu and Napthine (December 2010 to December 2014) opposed wind power developments. The Labor Andrews government that followed was much more favourable to climate change action.

Victoria's renewable energy targets 20% by 2020, 40% by 2025, 50% by 2030, zero emissions by 2050. They beat the 20% by 2020 target, got 21.2% solar and wind alone, 26.4% including hydro.

Western Australia

As of 2020/12/23 I have not been able to find any published renewable energy targets for WA. I emailed an inquiry; as of 2021/01/15 I had not received a reply.

I will note here that there is a huge unused wind energy resource along the coast from Perth to Mandurah, Bunbury, Busselton and Dunsborough. I spent three weeks mainly at Mandurah in late 2020/early 2021 and noticed how windy the weather was. About a decade earlier a wind farm was proposed for Lake Clifton, south of Mandurah, but nothing came of it. At the time of writing (2018) there was not a single wind farm in this 200km+ length of coast.

Inspirational projects proposed by entrepreneurs

Asian Renewable Hub, Pilbara, Western Australia

The Asian Renewable Energy Hub is a proposal for "26,000 MW of renewable energy". It is expected that:
"up to 3,000 MW of generation capacity will be dedicated to large energy users in the Pilbara region, which could include new and expanded mines and downstream mineral processing. The bulk of the energy will be used for large scale production of green hydrogen products for domestic and export markets."
The original proposal involved several undersea electricity transmission lines.

Sun Cable; Northern Territory proposal

Sun Cable is a 10GW (10 gigawatt, 10,000MW) solar photovoltaic project near Elliott involving a 30GWh battery and undersea cable to Singapore. It is also called the Australia-ASEAN Power Link (AAPL).
"Sun Cable concluded a significant capital raise in November 2019, which included lead investment from Mike Cannon-Brookes's Grok Ventures and Andrew Forrest's Squadron Energy."
The Sun Cable Web site indicates that the panels are to be lain directly onto cleared ground, with small gaps between rows of panels. I would think that herbicides would have to be used to control plant growth. The average annual rainfall at Elliott is 586mm, much of it I would think would come in quite heavy showers; it would seem to me that the run-off could cause quite a bit of erosion and other problems. (I emailed an inquiry to Sun Cable on this matter on 2021/01/05.)

Mining giant Fortescue aims at 235 gigawatts of renewable energy development

In an article published by the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, 2020/11/12, (and elsewhere) it was reported that Fortescue Metals plans to build 235 gigawatts (GW) of mostly wind and solar generation capacity; that's 235,000,000,000 Watts, enough to power about 235 million homes.

To put it further into perspective it is about five times the capacity of Australia's main grid, the National Electricity Market (NEM). Australia's biggest power station, Loy Yang, has a maximum capacity of 3.3 GW.

Cable across Australia

Cara Waters wrote an article in the Sydney Morning Herald, 2020/09/07 headlined 'Electrify everything': Cannon-Brookes calls for east-west solar cables to power Australia. It was about some of the projects that Billionaire Mike Cannon-Brookes was promoting. Just one of the projects that Connon-Brookes was pushing is a high capacity power transmission line between WA and the eastern states. Quoting the SMH article:
One such project, according to Mr Cannon-Brookes, is a high-voltage cable that could transmit solar energy between Western Australia and the eastern states. "If we had west to east connectivity of power we would need vastly less storage in the NEM [National Electricity Market]," Mr Cannon-Brookes told The Sydney Morning Herald's Sustainability Summit on Monday.

"Don't forget, 75 per cent of our population is about three or four hours ahead of the sunlight in Western Australia. That gets us through the evening peak of 5pm to 9pm having energy come from solar in West Australia which is very reliable, very consistent and even within our national boundaries."
While several shorter high capacity transmission lines to areas with good wind and/or solar resources would be justifiable (for example Eyre Peninsula in South Australia), I'm not sure of this one.

This section added


The first I heard of e-methanol was from the two links below. I came across them only today.

E-methanol can be made by reacting 'green' hydrogen with carbon dioxide (obtained from the air or as waste from other processes). Methanol is a liquid that is easy to store and transport; e-methanol is simply methanol that is environmentally 'clean', potentially net-emissions-free.

Methanol (CH3OH) can be burned as a fuel, either mixed in small proportions with petroleum fuels or in modified ICE (internal combustion engines). It can be net zero emission if the energy used to produce it is renewable and the carbon dioxide comes from the air. The information on the Siemens page below states that methanol can be further processed to produce petrol, diesel or kerosene which are then usable in conventional vehicles, ships or aircraft.

The fuels are all potentially net-emissions-free. I gather whether they are entirely net-zero emissions will depend one the detail of the processes used to produce them.

This all seems to me to have great possibilities. And, of course, Australia, with its exceptional renewable energy resources, is ideally placed to develop this as a huge new industry (if our governments can divorce themselves from the fossil fuel industries - as an awful example, the Morrison Government).

Some relevant links...

Wikipedia, Methanol economy

Fuel from wind and sun; Siemens Energy, written by Gerhard Neubert, undated

Ørsted buys stake in large-scale onshore wind-powered e-methanol project in Sweden; Windpower Monthly, written by Gail Rajgor, 2022/01/12

Maersk secures green e-methanol for the world’s first container vessel operating on carbon neutral fuel; press release, 2021/08/19

This section added

Snapshot, 2021-22 financial year

What had been achieved in Australia's adoption of renewable energy by the end of the 21-22 financial year?

Solar (Rooftop)
Solar (Utility)
Total renewables
South Australia
Western Australia
All regions
All figures have been taken from Open NEM and are for the period 2021/06/28 to 2022/06/30. There may be rounding errors.

In Australia as a whole (more accurately, in the combined NEM and SWIS) there has been very little increase in hydro power over the last couple of decades, while solar and wind power have been growing hugely. Utility-scale solar is the Johny-come-lately, but At the time of writing (2018) was catching up to roof-top solar. In 2018 there was about a tenth as much utility solar as roof-top, by 2022 utility was generating well over half as much as solar. Total solar power generation has been increasing by an average of about 25% per year since 2018. Wind generation has increased roughly four-fold since 2011.

Queensland has been the notable slow starter, not building a single wind farm between 2002 and 2017. It is still is the laggard among all the states in both wind power and total renewables.

Tasmania is the clear leader in renewable energy, most of which is hydro and has been in place for decades.

South Australia has seen by far the greatest growth in renewable energy over the last two decades (it had practically no renewable energy in 2002), especially in wind power. As of about 2018 there was so much wind power in SA that the market was near saturation and it became more profitable to build new wind farms in other states.

Victoria seems to have been the primary go-to state for wind farm developers with the hiatus in SA.

NSW and WA have neither been notable for progress nor lack thereof.

This section added

South Australia's Eyre Peninsula


Hydrogen storage potential in salt beds on western Eyre Peninsula

A quote from Ent X, "Bloomberg NEF reports levelised cost of hydrogen storage (LCOS):
  • engineered tanks US$2.30/kg;
  • depleted gas field US$1.90/kg;
  • rock cavern $0.71/kg;
  • salt cavern $0.23/kg".
A document (on page 3) by Bloomberg NEF gives the above cost for salt cavern storage and also a 'Possible future LCOS' in salt caverns at $0.11. Both are far cheeper for long term (weeks or months) storage for large volumes than any alternative.

Solar power too

Eyre Peninsula, having a dry climate (other than the southern tip it is marginal for cropping) also has a good solar power generation potential. See SolarGIS
In mid April 2023 a couple of important and exciting developments were announced involving the development of the huge renewable energy potential of the Eyre Peninsula. This followed a much earlier announcement of a proposed iron ore mine and deep water port also proposed for EP. All three projects could be mutually beneficial.

There could be up to five gigawatts of renewable energy including a hydrogen and ammonia plant built on the peninsula. To put that in perspective, some of the biggest present wind turbines are about five megawatts. Five gigawatts would require a thousand of these.

While Eyre Peninsula, particularly the west coast of Eyre Peninsula, has a huge wind resource and a sparse population, At the time of writing (2018) this resource was completely undeveloped. The advantages of EP in wind resource are several:

  1. It is a SW-facing coast receiving frequent and consistent strong winds;
  2. It is exposed to the prevailing westerly winds coming unobstructed off the Great Australian Bight;
  3. Cold fronts move through from the west and arrive at the west coast of EP several hours before reaching any areas in the NEM (National Electricity Market) developed for wind power. This would allow the EP turbines to feed power into the NEM while the turbines further east were still in calm air.

At the time of writing (2018) the only wind farms on Eyre Peninsula were Mount Millar, 70MW on eastern EP and Cathedral Rocks, 64MW on the far southern tip of EP. The existing transmission line has little capacity for any more than these two small wind farms. The nearest high capacity transmission lines were at Port Augusta, a distance of 300 kilometres from the west coast of EP.

Development of the EP wind resource has been suggested previously, see Eyre Peninsula Wind Project on another page on this site.

The South Australian Government Climate Change Action Plan 2021–2025" includes the following:

"South Australia's transformation to a net zero emissions economy and a national and international exporter of clean energy could mean achieving a level of renewable energy that is more than 500% of current local grid demand by 2050."
Development of the wind resource of Eyre Peninsula would be a big step toward achieving this.

Links to Eyre Peninsula projects, including the two recently announced projects mentioned above...

Western Eyre Peninsula...

EntX Western Eyre Peninsula green Hydrogen and Ammonia project; “The potential for large-scale underground salt cavern hydrogen storage”

Clean energy tech company EntX to explore Polda Basin salt deposits for hydrogen storage potential; ABC Eyre Peninsula, By Bernadette Clarke and Emma Pedler, 2023/04/11

Eastern Eyre Peninsula (Cape Hardy)...

Amp Energy to build multi-billion-dollar green hydrogen facility on Eyre Peninsula; ABC Eyre Peninsula, By Lucas Forbes and Emma Pedler.

5 GW green hydrogen project wins bid for SA’s Eyre Peninsula, PV Magazine, written by Bella Peacock.

These articles don't explain how or where the renewable energy is to be generated, whether solar, wind or a combination, or how it is to be transmitted to Cape Hardy. They also don't mention the potential of the hydrogen being used to smelt the magnetite iron ore that is to be railed to Cape Hardy. This could be a big step toward the greening of the Australian iron and steel industry.

The proposed deep water port at Cape Hardy, if it is built, will serve the central Eyre Peninsula Iron Road magnetite mining project.

Central Eyre Peninsula...

Iron Road; a short summary of the iron ore mining project.

Iron Road Ltd Information and Technical Data Sheet; Central Eyre Iron Project (CEIP)

The ore reserve in central Eyre Peninsula is magnetite, which is better suited to smelting using renewable hydrogen than is the haematite of the Pilbara in Western Australia.

This section added

Some extrapolations;
How much renewable energy is Australia likely to have in the future?

Table 1. A linear extrapolation
Linear extrapolation
Base data, 2015 and 2020, from Open NEM
Table 2. An exponential extrapolation
Exponential extrapolation
Base data, 2010, 2015 and 2020, from Open NEM
The two tables on the right are extrapolations projecting the percentages of electrical energy contribution to demand in all major grids, the NEM (National Electricity Market - that is the eastern states main grid) and the individual states.

The extrapolations are based on the demand between 2010 and 2020, which has remained pretty stable.

Table 1 is a linear extrapolation; based on the assumption that the percentage increase in each five year period will be the same as that between 2015 and 2020.

Table 2 is an exponential extrapolation; based on the assumption that the rate of increase in renewable energy will follow the same geometric trend as that between 2010 and 2020.

While growth in renewable energy in most jurisdictions has tended to be exponential in the period 2010 to 2020, I suspect that this is not likely to remain so for more than a decade or two. I would expect the actual figures to be something between the the figures of the two tables.

I should stress that these figures are extrapolations based on the past trend, not predictions.

How can generation go beyond 100% of (present) consumption?

Generation in one part of the power grid, for example SA or Tasmania, can go beyond local consumption if power can be exported to the other states, but what about when there is an excess of renewable power in the whole of the grid as is going to become more and more likely over the next ten or fifteen years?

There are many potential uses of abundant and cheap renewable electricity: I've listed them in the Game changers section of this page. As renewable energy becomes even cheaper and more abundant uses will be found in many areas:

  • High on the list is the conversion of renewable energy into hydrogen, which has many potential uses, including for steel making, as a replacement for natural gas, for the production of ammonia (which has many uses in industry, is easily transported and from which hydrogen can be recovered) and for hydrogen powered vehicles and trains;
  • Electric vehicles will gradually (or quickly?) replace fossil fuel powered vehicles; this will result in a huge demand for electricity;
  • The exporting of renewable energy is a huge opportunity for Australia;
  • Ammonia can be produced from renewable hydrogen and has many industrial and agricultural uses, and is much more easily transported than is hydrogen;
  • There are a number of ways of storing electricity including in batteries, pumped hydro or as heat. They will allow energy to be stored when it is plentiful and used as needed;
  • Another possibility is using excess electricity to desalinate sea water.
Renewable energy will become a huge export opportunity for Australia in the future. We must hope that our federal government, with its fixation on fossil fuels, does not stop us from taking advantage of those opportunities.

Related pages

Related pages on this site

Who wants renewable energy?

End of coal: why the coal industry has a very limited future.

Ethics: a subject that Energy Minister Taylor would do well to learn about.

Greenhouse/climate change: the greatest threat currently facing mankind.

Hydrogen and energy

Killer coal: how the burning of coal kills millions of people world-wide each year.

Power to Gas (P2G, renewable energy used to produced hydrogen gas) in Australia.

Pumped hydro energy storage.

Selfishness or altruism?: self or all?

SA's energy future

South Australia's success in changing toward renewable energy

Angus Taylor, Australia's gobsmackingly biased Energy Minister

What matters? in climate change and government

Which electricity generation method should Australia choose for the future?

Which would you prefer, wind energy or fossil fuels?

Why support wind power

Why would you choose nuclear power?

Wind power and wind farms in Australia

Wind power opposition: almost universally dishonest.

Related pages on external sites


Roadmap for a Renewable Energy Future: Federal election policy recommendations; from the Clean Energy Council. Undated, apparently published about 2021.

Australian Energy Infrastructure Commissioner; gives information on energy projects and infrastructure, energy infrastructures locations, and electricity generation.

The Conversation: "Against the odds, South Australia is a renewable energy powerhouse. How on Earth did they do it?"; 2021/02/25, written by Michael McGreevy and Fran Baum.

ANU report, 2018/09/10, "Australia’s renewable energy industry is delivering rapid and deep emissions cuts"; written by Ken Baldwin, Andrew Blakers and Matthew Stocks.

Heroes building Australia's low-carbon economy, by 350 Australia, September 2018. "Despite a lack of federal government leadership, the low-carbon economy is thriving. The stories featured in this report have been chosen by a selection committee incorporating feedback from stakeholders in the low-carbon economy – businesses, community groups, NGOs, researchers, academics, investors and individual experts."

The Future of Energy: Australia's Energy Choice suggests that the best course for Australia is:

"... pursuing an energy mix dominated by intermittent renewables with reliability provided by a mix of dispatchable power stations is a no regrets policy direction for Australia. This would result in the country being supplied by 80% renewable energy within 20 years and with lower emissions from power generation (68% lower than 2005). It would also add more than $13b to GDP and enable an additional $6b in consumption by Australians."
The report is from PWC in collaboration with Jacobs.

Related pages: External, energy storage

"Want energy storage? Here are 22,000 sites for pumped hydro across Australia"; Andrew Blakers, Bin Lu, Matthew Stocks, 2017/09/21, The Conversation. "PHES [pumped hydro energy storage] can readily be developed to balance the grid with any amount of solar and wind power, all the way up to 100%, as ageing coal-fired power stations close."

These Australian National University researchers were awarded the prestigious Eureka Science Prize for this work in August 2018.

Related pages: External, general

"Coal is no longer cheaper – and we'll prove it": Sanjeev Gupta, the British billionaire who saved the Whyalla steel industry knows that the future lies with renewables.

Deloitte Insights: Global renewable energy trends; Solar and wind move from mainstream to preferred. "Technological innovation, cost efficiencies, and increasing consumer demand are driving renewables–particularly wind and solar–to be preferred energy sources. We examine seven trends that are driving this transformation."

Another nail in coal’s coffin? German steel furnace runs on renewable hydrogen in world first - traditionally coke, made out of high-grade coal, has been used for steel-making. 'It aint necessarily so' any more.

Just Have a Think provides a series of youtube videos on energy and climate-change related topics. This link is to the About page; the series is hosted by Dave Borlace.

Related pages: Hydrogen - A potential game-changer

As of 2020 hydrogen produced by renewable means (usually some form of electrolysis of water) is more expensive than hydrogen produced from fossil fuels (either natural gas or coal), but costs of 'clean, green hydrogen' are falling quickly.

Just Have a Think: Green Hydrogen: Can Australia lead the world?

Just Have a Think youtube home page

There are more links relating to hydrogen, both on and off this site, in the related pages section of my page on hydrogen and energy.

Adelaide: a demonstration plant

"Australian-first, $11.4 million hydrogen demonstration plant to be built in Adelaide"; Media Release, Australian Gas Networks, 2018/02/21.
ARENA article on the same project.

Port Lincoln: a demonstration plant

"Renewable ammonia demonstration plant announced in South Australia"; Ammonia Industry, written by Trevor Brown, 2018/02/16.
"The plant will comprise a 15 MW electrolyzer system, to produce the hydrogen, and two technologies for converting the hydrogen back into electricity: a 10 MW gas turbine and 5MW fuel cell. The plant will also include a small but significant ammonia plant, making it “among the first ever commercial facilities to produce distributed ammonia from intermittent renewable resources.”


Grattan Institute "Start with steel: A practical plan to support carbon workers and cut emissions" Australia could use its abundant renewable energy to produce hydrogen, use the hydrogen to convert its abundant iron ore to steel and create thousands of jobs at the same time as greatly increasing its export income.

The Guardian, by Katharine Murphy, 2019/06/22, "Australia's energy future: the real power is not where you’d think".

CSIRO's National Hydrogen Roadmap sketches the opportunities in using hydrogen as a medium for the storing, transporting and consumption of energy.

Hydrogen for Australia’s future: A briefng paper for the COAG Energy Council – Prepared by the Hydrogen Strategy Group, (headed by Dr Alan Finkel, Australia's Chief Scientist), dated August 2018.

Enough ambition (and hydrogen) could get Australia to 200% renewable energy; The Conversation, 2019/11/21; Scott Hamilton, Changlong Wang, Falko Ueckerdt, Roger Dargaville

HiTeMP OUTLOOK 2018: Transforming High Temperature Minerals Processing: A multi-stakeholder perspective on pathways to high value, net-zero CO2 products for the new economy. University of Adelaide. The paper discusses potential used of renewably produced hydrogen among other things.

Opportunities for Australia from hydrogen exports: ACIL Allen consulting for ARENA, dated August 2018. This report's medium growth scenario estimated world-wide annual energy demand for the production of hydrogen to be: 9 TWh by 2025, 32 TWh by 2030, 85 TWh by 2040. To put this in perspective Australia's total current electricity generation in the NEM in 2018 was less than 200 TWh.

$180 million investment in renewable hydrogen energy storage in ACT: ACT Open Government, 2016/08/30.

"How Australia can use hydrogen to export its solar power around the world"; Bianca Nogrady writing in The Guardian 2017/05/19.

16 renewable hydrogen projects backed by ARENA grants, written by Sophie Vorrath in Renew Economy, 2018/09/06. "... ARENA said the research and development projects targeted by the funding covered a diverse range of solutions, with at least one from each point in the supply chain: production, hydrogen carrier, and end use."

"Japan's hydrogen future may be fuelled by Australian renewables"; ARENA Wire, 2018/07/27.

The world

Bloomberg Green; Hyundai Hydrogen Chief on Why the Company Bet on Fuel Cells.

Germany names hydrogen the hero of its post-coal future; Germany hopes to import clean hydrogen from Australia.
Australia signs deal with Germany for potential future hydrogen exports.
This could prove interesting because the Australian Morrison Government has shown no interest in clean hydrogen but is pushing hydrogen made using fossil fuels for the energy source. The Germans won't want fossil-hydrogen.


Agrisolar; combining solar power with farming
Base-load power
All new roofs will generate power
Aluminium smelters could become virtual batteries
Area of solar panels required to power Australia
Cost: renewables are now cheapest
Cryogenic energy storage
Current situation
Decisions; how should they be made?
Electric vehicles
Energy storage
  Pumped hydropower
  Energy storage as heat
  Energy storage as hydrogen in salt caverns
  Energy storage in compressed air
Environmental concerns
Evaporation on pumped hydro storages
Exporting hydrogen products made using sustainable electricity
Exporting renewable energy beyond Australia: the great opportunity
Exporting sustainable electricity
Eyre Peninsula, South Australia
Geothermal energy
Great opportunity
High prices; the effects
Hydrogen generated from renewable energy
Hydrogen for steel making
Hydrogen to replace natural gas
Hydrogen powered vehicles
Integration of solar power with other needs
  Integrating generation, storage and consumption in the power grid
  Integration of PV into roofing
  Integration of solar power and rainwater collection
  Integration of solar power and farming
Inspirational aspirations
  Australian Capital Territory
  New South Wales
  South Australia
  Western Australia
Iron from ore electrolytically
Liquid air batteries
Methanol; as E-methanol
More interconnection
More solar PV
More wind farms
NEG (National Electricity Grid)
Opportunity, the great. Exporting renewable energy beyond Australia
Opportunity, combining solar power with farming
Opportunity in 'unusable' solar power?
Perovskite solar panels
  Potential, offshore wind power
Pumped hydro energy storage
Related pages
  Related pages on this site
  Related pages on external sites
  Hydrogen: a potential game-changer
  Related pages: External, energy storage
  Related pages: External, general
Rooftop solar potential – a calculation
Salt cavern energy storage as hydrogen
Seasonal variation in generation
Shade from solar panels
Solar panels to provide shade
Snapshot, 2021-22 financial year
Solar power potential
Solar thermal with storage
Synchronous condensers
Transmission lines
Uncertainty; the effects
Value adding to our exports: Making the most of our cheap energy
What area of solar panels would be needed to power Australia?
What technology mix will we have in fifty years time?
Where next?
Wind power potential
Working together; wind and solar complementing each other